These boots are made for walking… sometimes

Image is everything in sport these days, like it or loathe it. And Aircast boots aren’t exactly en vogue. Unless you are David Beckham, who has become synonymous with the “Beckham Boot”, there aren’t many that can pull off the grey, dull, clunky boot look well.

Aircast boots / walking boots / Controlled Ankle Movement (CAM) boots… or just Beckham Boots.

This is becoming a problem, as perception of the walking boot amongst athletes, coaches and even other medical staff (unfortunately) is that the provision of a boot must equal a severe injury. Wearing one is a badge that not many people want. This worries me for a number of reasons…

Do no harm:

Whether you use POLICE or PRICE, our first thought in acute injury management is “Protect”. I’ve written about acute assessment before (here) but if you have just witnessed the injury and don’t have any immediate concerns about preservation of life or limb, then often we don’t want to rush into a diagnosis. Things can always look worse immediately after injury, so our plan is to offload, reduce risk of secondary injury or worsening of the initial injury (AKA.. “Protect”).

So, with lower limb injuries around the foot and ankle, quite often we will provide a walking boot. Cue the groans.. “I can’t be seen in this”, “Its not that bad”, “Don’t let the coach see me wearing one”.

But here are our options; walking boot, below knee cast, tubular bandage… or nothing.

Immobilise

If we are talking about doing no harm, then evidence suggests that long term immobilisation (greater than 4-6 weeks) of acute ankle sprains is detrimental when compared to “functional treatment” (to avoid an argument of what is functional, lets just call this “Optimal Load” and leave it to clinical discretion) (Here). But also no intervention could be seen as negligent. If we have enough suspicion to be weighing up “should I offload this?” then when compared to a control (wearing a normal shoe), a walking boot limits sagittal plane range around the ankle to around 4 degrees and reduces body weight in peak plantar plane surface forces (154% vs 195% BW) (Here). So if we face an option of boot vs no boot, where we know we can limit range and peak forces in an acute injury, the answer is “yes, offload it” even for a day until you can re-assess. Why wouldn’t you?

A brief period of immobilisation, “around 10 days in a below knee cast or removable boot”, along with treatment to reduce pain and inflammation is recommended (Here). In a study of fifth metatarsal fractures, those that we provided with a walking boot had better outcomes of pain and return to activity vs those immobilised in a cast (Here). This is an advantage of the boot. We can protect the foot and ankle in a boot but remove it to utilise other treatments and rehab. We can keep unaffected joints mobile – perhaps another blog but I like to use ankle injuries as an opportunity to work on detailed foot control, like great toe flexion, abduction, tibialis posterior control and so on. We can do all of this whilst limiting inversion and staying in plantar-grade if necessary. Or if its a 5th metatarsal stress, we can keep the ankle mobile. You get the point, we couldn’t do that in a cast.

Our other option was tubular bandage. In a world where we can download apps to make us look like cartoon dogs for free, we still have plain grey boots and boring beige tubigrips, I say this as an academy physio trying to make acute injury management appealing to young kids. When compared to those provided with a below knee cast & removable boot, severe ankle sprains had better clinical ankle function measures, quality of life, levels of pain and levels of activity at 3 months vs those provided with a tubigrip (Here). Perhaps a little bit unfair on the tubigrip, whose role in dealing with a severe ankle sprain is “compression” – a bit like saying an elastic band is worthless because its unable to hold sand together. But ultimately, in an acute injury, tubular bandage isn’t going to provide much protection at all.

Long term use:

Now the point of this blog is to de-sensitise reactions to using a boot for the short term, but it would be remiss not to mention their use in long term injuries. Following surgery or a fracture, the use of a walking boot is associated with a quicker return to normal gait and function (Here).

But does it come at a cost? Fixing the foot and ankle is obviously not conducive to “normal” walking, so it will change gait temporarily. In doing so, it can also create problems elsewhere. 84% of people using a boot developed or increased a secondary site of pain in the first two weeks of using the boot (Here). Now, 68% of those reported this pain made no difference to their life, but if you have someone with existing problems, especially in the low back, you might want to consider this stat as part of your clinical reasoning. Remember, part of our job is to prevent secondary injury.

If the boot fits..

There’s one option and aid we haven’t talked about and thats crutches. The reason I haven’t mentioned them is they come with the same stigma as a boot. They are obvious, they demonstrate you are “injured” so if someone doesn’t want to wear a boot, they probably aren’t going to want crutches either. But hopefully this brief blog gives you a bit more of an argument behind your reasoning to help reduce the association that wearing a boot equals a severe injury. So when we hear that a player has left the stadium in a boot, for the first couple of days, so what? It might be nothing. Something I have trialled before in a key first team player, which I admit is divisive, is to manage an athlete across 24 hours. So.. There are some injuries that can continue to train, like an inflamed sesamoid or plantar-fascia pain, but to give them the best chance of training and competing it would help to offload the structures through the rest of the day. So, instead of trying to control 1-2 hours of the day and reduce training / matches, why not try a boot to offload for the other 22 hours in a day? As the evidence above suggests, this is certainly not a long term solution. But across a couple of days, maybe? Limited evidence, but its worked twice for me.

The key to this working, was education. Ensuring that other players and staff understood that the boot didn’t mean a serious injury. But was an adjunct to help offload… or “protect”. There’s a theme here.

This is the message we need to get across, protecting an acute injury is not the same as us diagnosing or offering a prognosis. “You might only be in the boot overnight, but its a safe way of transporting you home.” We just need to help give them some good PR and make them seem less daunting, less serious…

 

Yours in sport

-Sam

 

 

 

A vision of high performance sport

 

I recently embarked on a professional development tour of North America, sparked by the inevitable malaise that comes from years and years of working in pro sports. I love my job and my profession and am incredibly lucky and grateful to have worked where I have, but the long hours and short recovery time don’t always allow for that enthusiasm to be re-ignited, to go out and learn from others and see what the world looks like. So, when Oliver Finlay, the concierge of sport, offered me the opportunity of a lifetime to visit Vancouver, Seattle, Las Vegas and LA to see some of the best high performance operators in the world, I jumped at the chance. 

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(Top row, left to right): Jeremy Sheppard & Elliot Canton; Andrew Small. (Middle row, left to right): Amy Arundale; Graham Betchart; Nick Pituk. (Bottom row, left to right): Scott Savor; Teena Murray; Per Lundstam.

 

This is a reflection of four key themes that I took from the meetings; Strategy, impact of change, ego and mental performance.

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(Top row, left to right): Marc Cleary & Brian Moore; Nicole Surdyka. (Middle row, left to right): Lindsay Shaffer; Sean Muldoon. (Bottom row, left to right): Amber Rowel & Damian Roden; Patrick Ward.

Out of respect for those that provided their time, I would like to acknowledge each and every one of those that met with us but also provide some anonymity & confidentiality to how they operate and what they are working towards. So, for most parts this is a general reflection and synthesis of information. With the odd tip of the cap where appropriate to the exceptional individual work that is being done. So, my thanks go to:

  • Jeremy Sheppard (Canadian Sports Institute)
  • Elliot Canton (Canadian Sports Institute)
  • Andrew Small (Milwaukee Bucks)
  • Per Lundstam (Redbull)
  • Teena Murray (Sacramento Kings)
  • Graham Betchart (NBA mental skills coach)
  • Scott Savor (NBA mental skills coach)
  • Duncan French (UFC)
  • Amy Arundale (Brooklyn Nets)
  • Nick Pituck (Cirque du Soleil)
  • Katie Perlsweig (Cirque du Soleil)
  • Brian Moore (Orreco bioanalytics)
  • Marc Cleary (Orreco bioanalytics)
  • Nicole Surdyka
  • Lindsay Shaffer (Headspace)
  • Sean Muldoon (Seattle Sounders)
  • Amber Rowell (Seattle Sounders
  • Damian Roden (Seattle Sounders)
  • Patrick Ward (Seattle Seahawks)
  • Sam Ramsden (Seattle Seahawks) 

STRATEGY 

We met with a range of disciplines with a range of experience in their current roles; athletic trainers, strength coaches, physio’s, performance directors, mental skills coaches; Ranging from 1 year on the job to entering their 10th year. But we didn’t meet one person that wasn’t aware of their process, where they were going and what challenges they faced. 

The environments that had a tangible feeling of sustainability all had clear and concise visions. Strategies of where they are now and where they need to be. Sounds obvious right? But it’s an easy thing to say and a different thing to do. 

“Build it and they will come”

Graham gave a great analogy that serves this thought well; who will be more successful, the person who tries to chase after the rabbit or the person who plants a field of carrots and sits quietly? The standout environments for me that planted fields upon fields of carrots were the Canadian Sports Institute and Redbull. Because their population within extreme sports have lived a life ungoverned by rules, they are the rule breakers that don’t conform to structure. So applying a regiment schedule that you may see in American Football just wouldn’t work. In very different ways, both organisations planted the carrots and waited. And there was a comfort in this superficial lack of structure because underpinning it were clear objectives and a vision that sat on a level that was detached from the athletes. 

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Away from working with the athletes, there were processes about building, developing and sustaining a performance team that again was underpinned by clear strategy and purposeful recruitment. Seattle Seahawks, under the wisdom of Sam Ramsden, stood out as one of the departments that had perhaps been on the longest journey and was now at a point that he was truly comfortable but still had a 3 year progression plan ahead of them. Consistently, performance directors spoke of the time that this took, between 5-7 years was the consensus to establish a harmonious and collaborative performance team. 

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At the other end of the journey were practitioners finishing their first year in the job, reflecting on the change around them, the change they wanted to create and how their environment was coping with the change that came with their employment.

CHANGE

Nobody likes change. Unless you are Oliver Finlay and you are studying change management as your PhD. Whether you are trying to implement change or you are a product of the change, it comes with uncertainty and requires an ability to balance and gradually influence. It was interesting to see that everyone had a different approach to this. 

Some people were energised by the positive approach to change at their organisation, whereas others clearly demonstrated signs of “change fatigue” where year on year something operational or structural had occurred and was creating a demotivated approach to change

“what’s the point in getting on board with this when it will probably change again next year” (paraphrased quote amalgamated from a few different conversations). 

The introduction of new staff was a major component of this association with change. And it was interesting to hear how new staff are integrated at different organisations. Take Cirque du Soleil, an environment where every single person has a very different personality and background, from dance, gymnastics, trampoline to military, NFL or academia. As part of the circus family, each individual was celebrated for who they are, no one had to conform. Equally, we were told that a new member of staff is almost expected to know nothing, with a robust and consistent induction period to each show. 

At one end of the scale, we met people who agreed that their philosophy in year one of a new role was to sit and be quiet, to observe and speak when spoken to. To essentially use the year to “be accepted”. At the other end we met people with vast depths of experience that could identify early on where changes needed to occur and how to improve, picking that “low hanging fruit” but on reflection, felt that perhaps too much change at once had been detrimental. 

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And this made me reflect on my experiences, having been a contractor that “fills in” or on a 1 year fixed term contract and how that compares to being part of a project on a permanent contract. Going into any role now, I would know what questions to ask of those above me. What are the expectations? Knowing it’s a short term contract means you know to do the quick fixes, but if its permanent, what do year one expectations look like compared to year 3? What changes are necessary and what can be a longer term project. I am forever grateful to a conversation I once had with Dr Ben Rosenblatt who outlined a matrix for change, looking to “traffic light” interventions and opportunities that:

1) would be immediately important

2) would be easy to implement 

3) had greatest magnitude of effect?

Outlining these things and revisiting them regularly helps you to gauge the need for change. Herein lies a thin line, and what side of that line you fall depends on ego.

EGO

An overriding message from the trip was “there is no room in performance departments for ego”.

What you implement, what you decide to change, who you decide to invest your energies in, can not be driven by ego. And here was the deepest level of reflection for me. I would like to think I am not known as having a massive ego, but when I spoke to people much wiser than I, I realised I did have one that perhaps was enough to influence my practice over the years. 

Another gem from Graham, as soon as you feel you have to justify your job, you are onto a loss. The athlete has reached this level without you and, more often than not, will remain there in spite of you. Supporting them doesn’t come from enforcing your beliefs on them, it also doesn’t come from running monitoring systems that serve a purpose to publish your data. The best organisations we visited again had a structure in place to safeguard this. Whether it was a layered approach to implementing a new monitoring system, robustly scrutinised at each level to ask “does this serve the athlete?” Or whether it was an end of season audit to review practice and ask “what have we done and why did we do it?” Both approaches served the purpose to ask, “Am I satisfying myself and my ego or does it benefit the program & the athlete.”

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Now, this is a two sided relationship. To have that ability to sit and be patient, to not feel the need to prove your worth, to know where the low hanging fruit is with immediate impact whilst planning the longer term vision, it all requires support from above and around you. Again, those organisations stood out. The Seahawks, UFC under Duncan French, Canadian Sports Institute among many others, all had people at the helm who knew the happiness and development of their staff was crucial to the long term success of the organisation and their athletes. 

MENTAL PERFORMANCE

We all know sport is tough, rarely does it come with the glamour or success that we dreamed before entering the profession. Instead it is long hours, time away from family, missed weddings, flying visits to hotels and long delays in airport waiting rooms. It also has a lot more adversity than it has championship medals. I personally took great motivation from Pep Guardiola’s advice to John Stones: “In football, there are more mistakes than success and you lose more than you win” 

From a medical perspective, I think this can sometimes be overlooked. Its is easy to chase success; a successful rehab, a low re-injury rate, a correct diagnosis after initial assessment, even thinking outside of your department and focusing on team selection and competition results. But focusing on chasing success can mean you aren’t learning from the mistakes.

If the staff are feeling the pinch from the characteristics of sport listed above, or perhaps an injury that doesn’t go to plan, it can be compounded by the fact that the majority of interactions through the day have negative connotations; “I am in pain” “I can’t do this” “why does this hurt”…. no one sticks their head in the treatment room to tell how amazing they feel. 

If you don’t like hearing these questions then you shouldn’t be a health professional. But my point is, if the staff are looking after the players and absorbing or buffering their negativity, who is looking after the staff? 

This was a recurring question we asked of performance directors and of the mental skills coaches we met with. Headspace, in a move that just oozed with everything Headspace stands for, blocks out two 15 minute spaces in the day to ensure staff get some alone time. No meetings can be booked in these times, they are free to meditate and group meditations are encouraged, but equally they can just sit in a quiet room and breath for a small period of time in a busy day. This made me think about its application in sport. Why not? 15 minutes should be achievable, right?

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Without having a rigid meditation structure like Headspace, there was acknowledgement of the need to decompress at UFC, where work can intensify over a period of weeks. Duncan made it clear that when the opportunity comes, he encourages staff to go down a gear, take more time and be sensible about energy expenditure. Knowing that they can ramp it up again when the next time comes.  

If you have the opportunity to employ a mental skills coach, or perhaps you are one and you are part of a new team, how are you going to integrate and operate? Oliver himself was able to draw on reflections from a previous role where a proactive approach to build mental skills actually highlighted an unforeseen problem; if you have one mental skills coach, or sports psychologist, and they look after both staff and players, what does the player think when they open up about how they feel and then watch as the sports psych walks straight into the coaching office? One of the mental skills coaches we met actually withdrew themselves from a full time position and intentionally became part time, so that they didn’t become too familiar or part of the furniture, giving themselves some distance become a more intermittent but effective presence. 

Conclusion

I guess the overriding message through this reflection is the importance of a clear vision. Something that is easily articulated, frequently visible and actually lived. This then provides the foundation for who you employ, how they integrate into the team, what’s expected of individuals and the department and ultimately feeds performance of staff and athletes. 

I would be interested to hear people’s opinions or reflections on experiences of change, how you coped, how you were managed and supported. What will you do given the opportunity to influence a department?

Yours in sport,

Sam

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